Avascular Necrosis

Avascular necrosis is defined as the localized death of cells in the bone due to lack of blood supply to it. It results in weakening or collapse of the bone.

It is also called osteonecrosis or ischemic bone necrosis and most commonly occurs in the hip. The other common sites include shoulders, knees and ankles.

Causes
  • Idiopathic (unknown)
  • Bone fractures
  • Joint dislocations
  • Steroids
  • Alcohol abuse
  • Smoking
  • Radiotherapy or chemotherapy
  • Auto immune diseases
  • Pain
  • Decreased range of motion
Investigations
  • X-rays
  • CT Scan
  • Bone scintigraphy
  • MRI
Treatment
Non-Surgical

Management & treating of underlying cause of avascular necrosis to minimize progression of disease

  • Medications
  • Exercises
  • Rest
Surgical

Joint-preservation operations: These procedures are done in early avascular necrosis of the hip to improve blood supply to the affected bone

  • Core Decompression and bone grafting
  • Core Decompression and bone marrow injection
  • Vascularised bone grafting

Joint Replacement: Done in advanced stages where bones are collapsed and arthritis is evident

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